Vehicle performance monitoring tracks critical driver and vehicle behaviors that affect fuel consumption, maintenance, or safety, thereby providing fleet managers and owners actionable insights into their vehicles. Monitoring devices vary in terms of data captured and cost, and may be portable or hard-wired to the vehicle. However, most units at a minimum report Global Positioning System
(GPS) location history and the approximate location of stops. Additional functionality can be enabled by capturing data such as maximum speed, distance traveled, hard-braking events, check engine codes, throttle position, engine speed, and timing advance. Newer systems may also include semi-autonomous capabilities such as accident avoidance or pedestrian detection. Data are retrieved either manually by downloading the device’s stored information to a computer or through wireless technology connected to the cloud. Vehicle performance monitoring systems support fleet managers by creating and sending messages and reports that track the operational readiness of vehicles and the performance of drivers.